Learning Difficulties Australia


Literacy - spelling

Key Research Papers
Programs & Resources
Useful Links

Key Research Papers

Spelling Acquisition

Caravolas, M., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2001). The foundations of spelling ability: Evidence from a 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of memory and language, 45(4), 751-774.

Moats, L. C. (1995). Spelling: Development, disabilities, and instruction. York Press.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Bindman, M. (1997). Morphological spelling strategies: developmental stages and processes. Developmental psychology, 33(4), 637.

Treiman, R., & Cassar, M. (1997). Spelling acquisition in English. Learning to spell: Research, theory, and practice across languages, 61-80.

Westwood, P. (2015). Spelling: do the eyes have it?. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 20(1), 3-13.

Spelling Impairments

 Coltheart, M., & Kohnen, S. (2012). Acquired and developmental disorders of reading and spelling. The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language, Volume 1&2, 892-920.

Treiman, R. (1997). Spelling in normal children and dyslexics. Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention, 191-218.

Spelling Assessment

 Apel, K., & Masterson, J. J. (2001). Theory-Guided Spelling Assessment and InterventionA Case Study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 32(3), 182-195.

Kohnen, S., Nickels, L., & Castles, A. (2009). Assessing spelling skills and strategies: A critique of available resources. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 14(1), 113-150.

Masterson, J. J., & Apel, K. (2000). Spelling Assessment: Charting a Path to Optimal Intervention. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(3), 50-65.

Westwood, P. (2005). Spelling: Approaches to teaching and assessment. Aust Council for Ed Research.

Westwood, P. (2009). Arguing the case for a simple view of literacy assessment. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 14(1), 3-15.


Spelling Intervention


Bowers, P. N., Kirby, J. R., & Deacon, S. H. (2010). The effects of morphological instruction on literacy skills a systematic review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 144-179.

Fulk, B. M., & Stormont-Spurgin, M. (1995). Spelling interventions for students with disabilities: A review. The Journal of Special Education, 28(4), 488-513.

Gordon, J., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1993). Spelling interventions: A review of literature and implications for instruction for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.

Graham, S. (1999). Handwriting and spelling instruction for students with learning disabilities: A review. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22(2), 78-98.

McArthur, G., Eve, P. M., Jones, K., Banales, E., Kohnen, S., Anandakumar, T., & Castles, A. (2012). Phonics training for English-speaking poor readers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12.

Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Swanson, E. A., Edmonds, M., & Kim, A. H. (2006). A synthesis of spelling and reading interventions and their effects on the spelling outcomes of students with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(6), 528-543.

Programs and instruction

Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling?. Reading research quarterly, 49-66.

Hempenstall, K. (2015). Spelling Mastery and Spelling through Morphographs: Direct Instruction programs for beginning and low-progress spellers. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 20(1), 55-81.

Kohnen, S., & Nickels, L. (2010). Teaching children with developmental spelling difficulties in a one-on-one context. Australasian Journal of Special Education, The, 34(1), 36.

Westwood, P. (2005). Spelling: Approaches to teaching and assessment. Aust Council for Ed Research.

Impact of texting

Kemp, N. (2010). Texting versus txtng: reading and writing text messages, and links with other linguistic skills. Writing Systems Research, 2(1), 53-71.

Bushnell, C., Kemp, N., & Martin, F. H. (2011). Text-Messaging Practices and Links to General Spelling Skill: A Study of Australian Children. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 11, 27-38.


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Programs & Resources

Roberts, Janet, Australian Spelling Program; 2012: Learning Pathways
Manual ISBN 978-0-9807679-0-2


ManualResource Book, master worksheets for each level: Foundation1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and a supplement, Vowels, Consonants and Blends

Roberts, Jan, Spelling Recovery; 2001, David Fulton, UK, distributed by Taylor and Francis Group




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Useful Links

Logic of English Blog: High Frequency Words




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