Learning Difficulties Australia


Response to Intervention

Key Research Papers
Programs and Resources
Useful Links


Response to Intervention & RTI Resources
What Are the Essential Components of RTI?
Simply, “Response to Intervention” refers to a process that emphasizes how well students respond tochanges in instruction. The essential elements of an RTI approach are: the provision of scientific, research-based instruction and interventions in general education; monitoring and measurement of student progress in response to the instruction and interventions; and use of these measures of studentprogress to shape instruction and make educational decisions. A number of leading national organizations and coalition groups, including the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities and the 14 organizations forming the 2004 Learning Disabilities (LD) Roundtable coalition, have outlined the core features of an RTI process as follows:
•    High quality, research-based instruction and behavioral support in general education.
•    Universal (school-wide or district-wide) screening of academics and behavior in order to determine which students need closer monitoring or additional interventions.
•    Multiple tiers of increasingly intense scientific, research-based interventions that are matched to student need.
•    Use of a collaborative approach by school staff for development, implementation, and monitoring of the intervention process.
•    Continuous monitoring of student progress during the interventions, using objective information to determine if students are meeting goals.
•    Follow-up measures providing information that the intervention was implemented as intended and with appropriate consistency.
•    Documentation of parent involvement throughout the process.
Quote taken from:
Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents
Author: Mary Beth Klotz, PhD, NCSP, and Andrea Canter, PhD, NCSP
National Association of School Psychologists

Back to Top

Key Research Papers

RTI Action Network (USA)
The RTI Action Network is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in school districts nationwide. Our goal is to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RtI so that each child has access to quality instruction and that struggling students – including those with learning disabilities – are identified early and receive the necessary supports to be successful. The RtI Action Network is a program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, funded by the Cisco Foundation and in partnership with the nation’s leading education associations and top RtI experts.

Nomanis Note #1: What is Response to Intervention?  

RTI and Reading: Response to Intervention in a Nutshell
Author: G. Emerson Dickman
RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach, rather it is a process that aims to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction that works best for students. This article provides a quick overview of RTI as it relates to reading.

Back to Top

Programs and Resources

The Quick Smart - Program Evidence
QuickSmart Numeracy and Literacy are responsive, small-group intervention programs that aim to develop fluent (Quick) and efficient (Smart) strategy use. The programs are aimed at middle-school students whose numeracy or literacy outcomes are below minimum standards.

AIMSweb is an assessment and web-based data management system that provides the framework for any RTI implementation.  AIMSweb provides multiple assessments designed to efficiently benchmark and progress monitor basic academic skills in reading, writing and math for students in grades K-8. Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition (DRA2). With demonstrated reliability and validity, the DRA2 for grades K-8 measures accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. The KeyMATH-3 assessment and instruction system gives you tools to assess and improve math skills of students ages 4∏ - 21.

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades
This guide offers five specific ecommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Teachers and reading specialists can utilize these strategies to implement RtI and multi-tier intervention methods and frameworks at the classroom or school level. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress.

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
This guide provides eight specific recommendations intended to help teachers, principals, and school administrators use Response to Intervention (RtI) to identify students who need assistance in mathematics, and to address the needs of these students through focused interventions. The guide also describes how to carry out each recommendation, including how to address potential roadblocks in implementing them.

The National Centre on Response to Intervention (USA)
RtI integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems. With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities.

Back to Top

Useful Links

The Oregon Response to Instruction and Intervention Project (USA)
The purpose of ORTIi is to provide technical assistance to Oregon school districts implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) systems that provide targeted, effective instruction to meet the needs of all students and provide the framework to identify students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD). The focus of the project is on literacy, early intervention, and the use of evidenced-based practices.

Implementing a Response to Intervention Framework to Support Reading Success (USA)
SRI International. 

Wrightslaw (USA) has a very good section on Response to intervention, reporting the reauthorization of  IDEA, identifying children with specific learning disabilities. Schools will “not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability ..." (Section 1414(b)) (Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 97). Wrightslaw answers questions about Response to Intervention, presenting a large collection of articles, free publications and recommended websites from a variety of sources. We found that some experts endorse RtI, while others are less enthusiastic.

Back to Top

Go Back